Around the middle of Culpeper's Complete Herbal is a section about minerals. Click here to be directed to that section. This will be a list of some of the minerals and what they do, according to the book. I will not be listing the uses of ingesting these materials, but anything that mentions wearing/carrying the material. If the mode of use is not mentioned, I'll assume it's to be worn or carried.
This hopefully goes without saying, but don't put random rocks in your mouth. Yes, many are perfectly safe, but there are a lot that can cause problems.
None of this is a substitution for professional medical/psychological advice. It's just some stuff from a really old book that I think is cool, and I'm just some rando on the internet. Talk to your doctor about any health concerns, physical and mental.
One note I'd like to make is that this is an old text, so "men" may sometimes be used to refer to humans of any gender/sex. It can be hard to tell sometimes.
Gold - "Strengthens the heart and vital spirits." Apparently it's just a good one to have. This makes sense, actually. People with plenty of gold must have had plenty of money to buy things that would help them stay healthy, like regular doctor visits and good food.
Jacinth - "Strengthens the heart." Specifically, it is mentioned as being worn in a ring.
Emerald - Wear it as a ring. It supposedly prevents epilepsy and vertigo, but perhaps the best reason is to stop the "unruly passions of men."
Ruby - "Restrains lust"-- I assume lust of the wearer-- helps concentration/prevents daydreaming, and "makes men cheerful."
Diamond - Causes misfortune to the wearer. I thought this was interesting, because diamonds are so valued and sought-after, but my spouse helpfully suggested that maybe it's because people with diamonds are more likely to be mugged.
Amethyst - Good for sobriety, prevents too much sleep, gives an edge in fighting/hunting, and can apparently cure the vapors. For anyone unfamiliar with the term, "the vapors" refers to a mentally unstable state, so it could be said that amethyst helps with emotional balance.
Jasper - Stops lust.
Lapis lazuli - Makes men cheerful, fortunate, and rich.
This is actually most of the stones Culpeper mentions. The only ones I've left out are ones that supposedly caused purely physical effects and ones that were instructed to be ingested. Again, don't eat weird rocks.